These are ecosystems that have adapted to dry, hot summers and cold winters. Oak trees have developed in the Mediterranean and Circum Mediterranean zone, while acorns grow in the Thessaly plain where the soil is more fertile. We will also come across types of trees that have spread throughout Europe, such as the pine (Pinus silvestris), the spruce (Picea abies), and the beech (Fagus sylvatica).
The fauna in the Greek forests are characterized by high biodiversity. Other than the numerous kinds of birds, reptiles and insects, there is also a remarkable variety of mammals which live in the Greek forests, with the most notable being the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the wildcat (Felis silvestris), the jackal (Canis aureus), the wolf (Canis lupus) and the badger (Meles meles).
National Parks are proclaimed (natural regions) and their boundaries specified by Presidential Decree, based on Legislative Decree 996/1971, with a total area of 68,732 hectares, of which 34,378 hectares comprise the core. They are as follows: