The most ancient traces of habitation belong to the end of the Neolithic Age, between 4000 and 3000 B.C. During the period of prosperity of Cycladic civilization (3200-2000 B.C.) the famous civilization of Syros-Keros developed. In the 13th century the island was taken over by the Venetians who founded the medieval city on a hill above the port. During Turkish rule it kept important privileges and during the Revolution of 1821 it was under French protection. At the end of the 19th century, the island with Ermopolis as its center, experienced unprecedented growth which formed the present day profile of the island.