After archaeological excavations it was revealed with certainty that in the position of the present day city- the position of Kastelli – Kydonia was built in ancient times, which was built by the Kydones, the most ancient peoples who were already mentioned by Homer. Herodotus however gives another version for its settlement according to which the people of Samos rebelled against the tyrant Polykrati and having kicked out the Zakynthians, occupied Kydonia and rebuilt it in 519 B.C. What is important is the the city was preserved and during the Roman years flourished since it provided a theater and other public buildings. It sustained its prosperity until its occupation by the Arabs (823-961 A.D.). The city exhibited growth during Venetian rule and was the center of the province. On 11 August 1645 the city went under Turkish rule after a two-month seige. In 1898 after the departure of the Turkish army in Chania, it was designated the capital of the Cretan State (1898-1913). At the fortress Firka the first Greek flag was raised which meant the Union of Crete with Greece in 1913.