Built in the place of the ancient town of Thiva in a fertile plain, Thiva is associated with the tradition of Kadmos, Oedipus and Kreon.The region has been continuously inhabited since the Prehistoric era and became very prosperous during the Mycenaean period (1600-1100 B.C.), while during the Classic period under the control of Epameinondas and Pelopidas (371- B.C.) it became the predominant town. The decline started after it was destroyed by the Macedonians in 335 B.C. and continued during the Roman occupation and the barbarian raids. The silk processing brought economic prosperity to Thiva during the 8th – 12th centuries. Then came the Frankish (12th -15th centuries) and the Turkish rule (15th -19th centuries). Thiva was liberated after the battle of Petra in September 1829. Nowadays, it has 21,211 inhabitants and is agricultural, commercial and industrial center of the Prefecture of Boeotia. Thiva is located 45 km east of Livadeia.